[NTG-context] new upload

Richard Mahoney rmahoney at indica-et-buddhica.org
Sat Jan 22 21:04:50 CET 2022

Thank you Kauśika, these details are v. helpful.

Best, Richard

T +6433121699  M +64210640216
rmahoney at indica-et-buddhica.org

Indica et Buddhica
Littledene  Bay Road  Oxford  NZ

-----Original Message-----
From: kauśika via ntg-context <ntg-context at ntg.nl>
Reply-To: mailing list for ConTeXt users <ntg-context at ntg.nl>
To: mailing list for ConTeXt users <ntg-context at ntg.nl>
Cc: kauśika <citturs at gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [NTG-context] new upload
Date: Sat, 22 Jan 2022 18:01:42 +0530
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On Saturday, January 22, 2022 12:58:05 AM IST Hans Hagen via ntg-
> - initial indic transliteration support .. recent indic (font)
> experiences and transliteration tricks will be eplained by kauśika

Recently when we were troubled by incorrect rendering of certain
conjuncts in 
malayalam, Hans added a new font-feature. More below*, but first some 
background: from my testing, the main reason for the problems with
fonts seems 
to come from the varied interpretations and/or implementations of OTF 
specification. To add to this complexity there are two script tags
(v1, v2 in 
OTF and -one, -two in ConTeXt) for each writing system (script). While
are fonts which work very well right away many others have issues and
feature was added to somewhat alleviate these issues.

*The feature is 'indic'. It has two aspects: 'movematra' and

conjuncts takes values: mixed | continue | quit | auto
movematra takes values: default | leftbeforebase | auto

By default 
for indic scripts. So this "should work" in most cases. 

In case there are issues, I have seen that the following approach
yields best result in debugging:
 • try to switch between the -one and -two version of the features
(i.e. use 
the v1 or v2 OTF script tag): some fonts may have some rules defined
only under 
one of the script tags. (I am not an expert in fonts but with my
testing of 
free fonts I have seen this). 
 • if that does not fix (the particular issue), revert to a working
feature and 
then set the indic feature as indic={movematra=default,conjuncts=quit}
to see
 • Please see:
 issues usually have a pattern (across languages/scripts so some hacks

For conjuncts, 'mixed' and 'auto' are synonymous. Setting
ensures that for some fonts conjuncts with the reph forms are rendered
correctly. (This was tested with a relatively new font in malayalam
using the 
mlm2 script tag).

For problematic fonts, if one can identify which conjuncts work under
script tag and/or with what settings for indic, then, using ConTeXt
sets one can easily fix rendering in documents by doing, for instance
 {\feature[=][devanagari-two] …}, and/or
 {\feature[=][devanagari-one] …} accordingly
 See the comprehensive wiki page: 
for more details on how such feautresets might be built and applied.

Now, a brief note on the transliterations macros. First, one specifies
indic transliteration is desired with:

Now, one can transliterate sanskrit to and from various forms by using

\transliterate[scheme]{ … }
where scheme is one of:
    • iast to deva
    • deva to iast
    • deva to mlym
which are respectively the following schemes :
    • IAST → Devanagari
    • Devanagari → IAST
    • Devanagari → Malayalam
More schemes will be added in the near future for various other indic
as well. Currently there is only support for sanskrit language, which
we can 
extend to other languages (wherever the script allows).

Additionally, there is also 
which can be used to define a specific transliteration block.

So, one just sets vector accordingly to get the desired
transliteration block. 
Please see below a minimal example for both:

     vector={iast to deva}]

\starttransliteration[MyIASTtoDeva]%[color=green]   can set a new
color here 
idaṁ śarīraṁ kaunteya kṣetramityabhidīyate.
etadyo vetti taṁ prāhuḥ kṣetrajña iti tadvidaḥ. 

\transliteration[MyIASTtoDeva]{idaṁ śarīraṁ kaunteya

% or directly 
\transliterate[iast to deva]{idaṁ śarīraṁ kaunteya


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