[NTG-context] APA formatting and reference questions

Alan BRASLAU alan.braslau at cea.fr
Thu Aug 25 03:39:46 CEST 2016


On Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:43:03 -0600
Todd DeVries <todd at equaltext.com> wrote:

> In this excerpt, the following APA style formatting
> errors occur:
> 
> 1. The first reference is cited as “Hartley, M.T. (2013).” There is
> usually a space separating these initials. Between the M. and T. in
> this reference.

Yes, there should be spaces between initials. There were spaces before,
and I will see why they disappeared and fix it.


> 2. The word “and” is appearing in both parenthetical and in-text
> citations. When a reference is completely within parentheses, the last
> author should be separated by the & (Ampersand) character.

Yes, authoryears should use "and" and authoryear should use "&". I'll
fix it.

However, the APA style goes even further:

"Precede the final name in a multiple-author citation in running text by
the word and. In parenthetical material, in tables and captions, and in
the reference list, join the names by an ampersand (&)"

How far should we go in dealing with tables and captions???


> 3. The last reference has 3 authors and should be written as Koch et
> al (2014) instead, it replicates the entire list of authors previously
> cited.

Formally:

"Invert all authors’ names; give surnames and initials for up to and
including seven authors (e.g., Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author,
C. C.). When authors number eight or more, include the first six
authors’ names, then insert three ellipsis points, and add the last
author’s name (see Chapter 7, Example 2). In text, follow the citation
guidelines in section 6.12."

"6.12
When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference
occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all
authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations,
include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not
italicized and with a period after al) and the year if it is the first
citation of the reference within a paragraph."

So, indeed, the second citation should have Koch et al., but...
Hans and I discussed this. It is a particularity of the APA style and
can get really tricky to program if we are to respect the following
part of section 6.12:

"Exception: If two references of more than three surnames with the same
year shorten to the same form (e.g., both Ireys, Chernoff, DeVet, &
Kim, 2001, and Ireys, Chernoff, Stein, DeVet, & Silver, 2001, shorten
to Ireys et al., 2001), cite the surnames of the first authors and of
as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two
references, followed by a comma and et al."

It becomes messy:

"When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first
author followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after al)
and the year for the first and subsequent citations. (See section 6.27
and Example 2 in Chapter 7 for how to cite works with more than six
authors in the reference list.) If two references with six or more
authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first
authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to
distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al."

So we set the etallimit to 5 and etaldisplay to 1 in citations and
etallimit to 7 and etaldisplay to 6 in the bibligraphy list. If, by
poor chance two references shorten to the same form, than you are out
of luck for now!

Alan



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